Union Budget 1998-99  

Budget at a Glance

Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India


Explanatory Note


The Budget estimates are presented in this document in broad aggregates to facilitate easy understanding. For this purpose certain items of receipts and expenditure have been regrouped. For example, the expenditure of commercial departments have been taken net of their receipts so that increase in the volume of transactions does not inflate the figures on both sides. Similarly, short term loans and advances given to the States and recovered during the same year have also been netted. Certain transactions which do not involve cash outgo, e.g., Ways & Means Advances to States, subscription to International Monetary Fund, investments in Nationalised banks, issue of special Bonds to oil companies in lieu of their claims under the Administered Price Mechanism for petroleum products, which are matched by receipts, have been excluded so that the focus is on real items of expenditure.

The document shows the revenue deficit, the fiscal deficit, monetised deficit and the primary deficit. Revenue deficit refers to the excess of revenue expenditure over revenue receipts. Fiscal deficit is the difference between the revenue receipts plus certain non-debt capital receipts and the total expenditure including loans, net of repayments. This indicates the total borrowing requirements of Government from all sources. Primary deficit is measured by fiscal deficit less interest payments.

Note: Variations, if any, in the figures shown in this document and those shown in other Budget documents are due to rounding.

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